Casting is a process in which liquid material is poured into a mold of the desired shape and allowed to solidify. The Casting process enables production of complex shapes that would be difficult or uneconomical to make by other methods. Casting process simulation is often used to predict quality including mechanical properties, thermal stresses and distortion. Castings are produced in Foundries, by methods such as Billet (ingot) casting ,Sand casting, Die casting, Lost-foam casting, Investment casting, Ceramic mold casting, V-process (vacuum) casting.
The Forging process consists of shaping metals with localized compressive forces, using hammers & Presses. The process results in components that have better strength than equivalent machined parts or castings. Forging dies are used to shape the metal, causing internal grain deformation that follows the contours of the die, resulting in continuous grain flow and good strength. Hot forgings are produced at temperatures above the material's recrystallization temperature. Cold forgings are produced at Temperatures below 30% of the recrystallization temperature. A significant advantage of hot forging is that as the metal is deformed, work hardening effects are removed during recrystallization. Cold forging typically results in work hardening & resultant stresses. Some advantages of the forging process are, reduction of voids in the metal, fine grain size, good fatigue resistance, continuous grain flow, improved micro structure, greater strength.
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